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Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star

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P-80 / F-80 Shooting Star
Role Jet fighter
National origin United States
Manufacturer Lockheed Corporation
Designer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson
First flight 8 January 1944
Introduction 1945
Retired 1959 (United States)
1974 (Chile)
Primary users United States Air Force
United States Navy
Produced 1945–1950
Number built 1,715
Developed into Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star
Lockheed F-94 Starfire

The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star was the first jet fighter used operationally by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II.[1] Designed and built by Lockheed in 1943 and delivered just 143 days from the start of design, production models were flying, and two pre-production models did see very limited service in Italy just before the end of World War II. Designed with straight wings, the type saw extensive combat in Korea with the United States Air Force (USAF) as the F-80.

America's first successful turbojet-powered combat aircraft, it was soon outclassed with the appearance of the swept-wing transonic MiG-15 and was quickly replaced in the air superiority role by the transonic F-86 Sabre. The F-94 Starfire, an all-weather interceptor using the same airframe, also saw Korean War service. The closely related T-33 Shooting Star trainer remained in service with the U.S. Air Force and Navy well into the 1980s, with the last NT-33 variant not retired until April 1997.

Design and development[edit]

A cross section of the aircraft with labeled parts

The XP-80 had a conventional all-metal airframe, with a slim low wing and tricycle landing gear. Like most early jets designed during World War II—and before the Allies captured German research data that confirmed the speed advantages of swept-wings—the XP-80 had straight wings, similar to previous propeller-driven fighters. It was the first operational jet fighter to have its engine buried in the fuselage, a format previously used in the pioneering German Heinkel He 178 V1 of 1939, and the later British Gloster E.28/39 demonstrator of 1941. Other early jets generally had two engines because of their limited power, these being mounted in external nacelles for easier maintenance. With the advent of more powerful British jet engines, a single fuselage-mounted engine was more effective, and this configuration was used by nearly all subsequent fighter aircraft.[citation needed]

Lockheed was the first American aircraft company to start work on a jet-powered aircraft, beginning work on the L-133 in 1939. The L-133 eventually developed into an extremely advanced design, including futuristic features such as canard forewings and a blended wing body, but when Lockheed presented the design to the Army Air Force, it was rejected as being technologically unfeasible.[2] Instead the USAAF concentrated development around the much less radical Bell P-59 Airacomet, which first flew in October 1942. It quickly became obvious, however, that the P-59's performance was only marginally superior to current piston engined fighters.[3] Bell performed preliminary work revising the P-59 with a low wing and a single fuselage-mounted engine, to be designated XP-59B, but by this time the Bell factory was swamped with other work so the USAAF transferred the project to Lockheed.[4]

The impetus for development of the P-80 was the discovery by Allied intelligence of the Me 262 in spring 1943, which had made only test flights of its own first quartet (the V1 through V4 airframes) of design prototypes at that time, all fitted with retracting tailwheel landing gear. After receiving documents and blueprints comprising years of British jet aircraft research, the commanding General of the Army Air Force, Henry H. Arnold, believed an airframe developed to accept the British-made Halford H-1 B "Goblin" jet engine could provide the superior performance to match the new German jets, and the Materiel Command's Wright Field research and development division tasked Lockheed to design the aircraft based on their experience with the L-133. Concept work began on the XP-80 in May 1943. Since the British turbojet was not yet delivered, Lockheed obtained its blueprint dimensions from Bell as ordered by the USAAF.[5] Lockheed's team, consisting of 28 engineers, was led by Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson in the same manner as the P-38 Lightning, in the same remote building with high security and greater autonomy, a continuation of Lockheed's Skunk Works style of research and development.[citation needed]

The original XP-80 prototype Lulu-Belle

With the Germans and British clearly far ahead in development, Lockheed was pressed to develop a comparable jet as quickly as possible. Kelly Johnson submitted a design proposal in mid-June and promised that the prototype would be ready for testing in 150 days.[6] The Skunk Works team, beginning 26 June 1943, produced the airframe in 143 days,[6] delivering it to Muroc Army Airfield on 16 November.[citation needed]

The project was so secret that only five of the more than 130 people working on it knew that they were developing a jet aircraft, and the British engineer who delivered the Halford H1 engine was detained by the police because Lockheed officials could not vouch for him.[6] After the engine had been mated to the airframe, foreign object damage during the first run-up destroyed the engine. The British engineer who had delivered the engine had warned Lockheed that the skin of the inlet ducts was too thin but the American engineers ignored this warning and both ducts collapsed and were sucked into the engine when at full throttle.[7] This delayed the first flight until a second engine (the only other existing)[8] could be delivered from Britain, de Havilland generously donating the engine intended for the prototype Vampire.[9][7]

The first prototype (44-83020) was nicknamed Lulu-Belle (also known as "the Green Hornet" because of its paint scheme). Powered by the replacement Halford H1 taken from the prototype de Havilland Vampire jet fighter,[N 1] it first flew on 8 January 1944, with Lockheed test pilot Milo Burcham at the controls. Following this flight, Johnson said, "It was a magnificent demonstration, our plane was a success – such a complete success that it had overcome the temporary advantage the Germans had gained from years of preliminary development on jet planes." The donated British jet engine and program data had no doubt proved invaluable. In test flights, the XP-80 eventually reached a top speed of 502 mph (808 km/h; 436 kn) at 20,480 ft (6,240 m), making it the first turbojet-powered USAAF aircraft to exceed 500 mph in level flight, following the August 1944 record flight of 504 mph (811 km/h; 438 kn) by a special high-speed variant[10] of the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt. Contemporary pilots, when transitioning to pioneering jets like the Shooting Star, were unused to flying at high speed without a loud reciprocating engine and had to learn to rely on the airspeed indicator.[6]

XP-80A Gray Ghost in flight

The second prototype, designated XP-80A, was designed for the larger General Electric I-40 engine (an improved J31, later produced by Allison as the J33). Two aircraft (44-83021 and 44-83022) were built. 44-83021 was nicknamed the Gray Ghost after its "pearl gray" paint scheme, while 83022, left unpainted for comparison of flight characteristics, became known as the Silver Ghost. The XP-80A's first test flight was unimpressive, but most of the problems with the design were soon addressed and corrected in the test program. Initial opinions of the XP-80A were not positive, with Lockheed Chief Engineering Test Pilot Milo Burcham commenting that an aircraft he very much enjoyed (powered by the Halford engine) had now become a "dog." The XP-80As were primarily testbeds for larger, more powerful engines and air intake design, and consequently were larger and 25% heavier than the XP-80.

The P-80 testing program proved very dangerous. Burcham was killed on 20 October 1944 while flying the third YP-80A, 44–83025. The Gray Ghost was lost on a test flight on 20 March 1945, although pilot Tony LeVier escaped. Newly promoted to chief engineering test pilot to replace Burcham, LeVier bailed out when one of the engine's turbine blades broke, causing structural failure in the aircraft's tail. LeVier landed hard and broke his back, but returned to the test program after six months of recovery.

The top-scoring World War II USAAF ace Major Richard Bong was also killed on an acceptance flight of a production P-80 in the United States on 6 August 1945. Both Burcham and Bong crashed as a result of main fuel pump failure. Burcham's death was the result of a failure to brief him on a newly installed emergency fuel pump backup system, but the investigation of Bong's crash found that he had apparently forgotten to switch on this pump, which could have prevented the accident. He bailed out when the aircraft rolled inverted but was too close to the ground for his parachute to deploy.

After Bong's death, both the USAAF and Lockheed wanted to prove the reliability of the airplane. Robert E. Thacker from the Flight Test Division at Wright Field was ordered to select three other pilots, pick up 5 P-80s from Lockheed and fly them to Muroc Army Airbase, and fly each airplane there for 500 hours. Thacker tapped Chuck Yeager, plus two other pilots and they put 500 hours on each airplane without further incident.[11]

After the war, the USAAF compared the P-80 and Me 262 concluding, "Despite a difference in gross weight of nearly 2,000 lb (900 kg), the Me 262 was superior to the P-80 in acceleration, speed and approximately the same in climb performance. The Me 262 apparently has a higher critical Mach number (the Me 262A's being at M 0.86), from a drag standpoint, than any current Army Air Force fighter."[12]

Operational history[edit]

Operational P-80Bs at Langley AFB

The Shooting Star began to enter service in late 1944 with 12 pre-production YP-80As, one of which was destroyed in the accident in which Burcham was killed. A 13th YP-80A was modified to the sole F-14 photo reconnaissance model and lost in a December crash.

Four were sent to Europe for operational testing (demonstration, familiarization, and possible interception roles), two to England and two to the 1st Fighter Group at Lesina Airfield, Italy, but when test pilot Major Frederic Borsodi was killed in a crash caused by an engine fire while demonstrating a YP-80A (44-83026) at RAF Burtonwood, Lancashire, England, on 28 January 1945, the YP-80A was temporarily grounded.[13]

Before World War II ended, however, two American pre-production Lockheed YP-80A Shooting Star fighter jets saw limited service in Italy with the USAAF on reconnaissance, in February and March 1945.[14] Because of delays in delivery of production aircraft, the Shooting Star saw no actual combat during the conflict.[15]

The initial production order was for 344 P-80As after USAAF acceptance in February 1945. A total of 83 P-80s had been delivered by the end of July 1945 and 45 assigned to the 412th Fighter Group (later redesignated the 1st Fighter Group) at Muroc Army Air Field. Production continued after the war, although wartime plans for 5,000 were quickly reduced to 2,000 at a little under $100,000 each. A total of 1,714 single-seat F-80A, F-80B, F-80C, and RF-80s were manufactured by the end of production in 1950, of which 927 were F-80Cs (including 129 operational F-80As upgraded to F-80C-11-LO standards). However, the two-seat TF-80C, first flown on 22 March 1948, became the basis for the T-33 trainer, of which 6,557 were produced.

On 27 January 1946, Colonel William H. Councill flew a P-80 nonstop across the U.S. to make the first transcontinental jet flight.[16] He completed the 2,457 miles (3,954 km) run between Long Beach and New York in 4:13:26 hrs at an average speed of 584 mph (507 kn; 940 km/h), aided by the upper-level westerly winds, to set a Fédération Aéronautique Internationale record. The P-80B prototype, modified as a racer and designated P-80R,[17] was piloted by Colonel Albert Boyd to a world air speed record of 623.73 mph (1,004.2 km/h) on 19 June 1947.[18]

The P-80C began production in 1948; on 11 June the newly formed United States Air Force redesignated the type as F-80C. The USAF Strategic Air Command had F-80 Shooting Stars in service from 1946 through 1948 with the 1st and 56th Fighter Groups. The first P-80s to serve in Europe joined the 55th Fighter Group (later redesignated the 31st FG) at Giebelstadt, Germany, in 1946, remaining 18 months. When the Soviet Union blockaded Berlin, a squadron of the 56th FG led by Colonel David C. Schilling made the first west-to-east Atlantic crossing by single-engined jets in July, flying to Germany for 45 days in Operation Fox Able I.[citation needed][N 2] Replaced by the newly Shooting Star-equipped 36th Fighter Group at Fürstenfeldbruck, the 56th FG conducted Fox Able II in May 1949. That same year F-80s first equipped the 51st Fighter Group, based in Japan.[citation needed]

The 4th (Langley Air Force Base, Virginia), 81st (Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico), and 57th (Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska) Fighter Groups all acquired F-80s in 1948, as did interceptor squadrons of the Air Defense Command.[citation needed] The first Air National Guard unit to fly the F-80C was the 196th FS of the California ANG in June 1947.[19]

U.S. Navy service[edit]

TO-1 Shooting Star of VMF-311

Several P-80A Shooting Stars[N 3] were transferred to the United States Navy beginning 29 June 1945, retaining their P-80 designations. At Naval Air Station Patuxent River, one Navy P-80 was modified with required add-ons, such as an arrestor hook, and loaded aboard the aircraft carrier USS Franklin D. Roosevelt at Norfolk, Virginia, on 31 October 1946. The following day the aircraft made four deck-run takeoffs and two catapult launches, with five arrested landings, flown by Marine Major Marion Carl. A second series of trials was held on 11 November.[20]

The U.S. Navy had already begun procuring its own jet aircraft, but the slow pace of delivery was causing retention problems among pilots, particularly those of the Marines who were still flying Vought F4U Corsairs. To increase land-based jet-transition training in the late 1940s, 50 F-80Cs were transferred to the U.S. Navy from the U.S. Air Force in 1949 as jet trainers. Designated TO-1 by the Navy (changed to TV-1 in 1950), 25 were based at Naval Air Station North Island, California, with VF-52, and 16 assigned to the Marine Corps, equipping VMF-311 at Marine Corps Air Station El Toro. These aircraft were eventually sent to reserve units. The success of these aircraft led to the procurement by the Navy of 698 T-33 Shooting Stars (as the TO-2/TV-2) to provide a two-seat aircraft for the training role. Lockheed went on to develop a carrier-capable version, the T2V SeaStar, which went into service in 1957.[20]

Korean War[edit]

F-80Cs of the 8th Fighter-Bomber Group in Korea, 1950

Shooting Stars first saw combat service in the Korean War, and were among the first aircraft to be involved in jet-versus-jet combat.

The Americans used the F-80C variant and RF-80 photo-recon variants in Korea. The F-80 flew both air-to-air and air-to-ground sorties, claiming several aerial victories against North Korean Yak-9s and Il-10s.

On 1 November 1950, a Russian MiG-15 pilot, Lieutenant Semyon F. Khominich, became the first pilot in history to be credited with a jet-versus-jet aerial kill after he claimed to have shot down an F-80. According to the Americans, the F-80 was downed by flak. One week later, on 8 November, the first American claim for a jet-versus-jet aerial kill was made when Lieutenant Russell J. Brown, flying an F-80, reported that he downed a MiG-15.[21] Soviet records claim that no MiGs were lost that day and that their pilot, Senior Lieutenant Kharitonov, survived by pulling out of a dive at low altitude.[21]

F-80C Shooting Star of the 8th Fighter Bomber Group in Korea

Despite initial claims of success, the speed of the straight-wing F-80s was inferior to the 668 mph (1075 km/h) MiGs. The MiGs incorporated German research showing that swept wings delayed the onset of compressibility problems, and enabled speeds closer to the speed of sound. F-80s were soon replaced in the air superiority role by the North American F-86 Sabre, which had been delayed to also incorporate swept wings into an improved straight-winged naval FJ-1 Fury. However, F-80 pilots still destroyed a total of six MiG-15s in aerial combat. When sufficient Sabres were in operation, the Shooting Star flew exclusively ground-attack missions, and were also used for advanced flight training duties and air defense in Japan. By the end of hostilities, the only F-80s still flying in Korea were photo-reconnaissance variants.

F-80Cs equipped 10 USAF squadrons in Korea:

  • 8th Fighter-Bomber Wing (35th, 36th, and 80th Fighter-Bomber Squadrons), based at Suwon Air Base, was the longest-serving F-80 unit in Korea. It began missions from Japan in June 1950 and continued to fly the Shooting Star until May 1953, when it converted to F-86 Sabres.
  • 49th Fighter-Bomber Group (7th, 8th, and 9th FBS) deployed to Taegu AB (K-2), Korea, from Japan in September 1950 and continued fighter-bomber missions in the F-80C until June 1951, when it converted to the F-84 Thunderjet.
  • 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing (16th and 25th FIS) operated F-80Cs from Kimpo AB (K-14) and Japan from September 1950 to November 1951 when it transitioned to F-86s.
  • 35th Fighter-Interceptor Group and two squadrons, the 39th and 40th FIS, went to Pohang, Korea in July 1950, but converted to the P-51 Mustang before the end of the year.

One RF-80A unit operated in the Korean War:

  • 8th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, later redesignated 15th TRS, served from 27 June 1950 at Itazuke, Japan, Taegu (K-2), and Kimpo (K-14), South Korea, until after the armistice. The squadron also utilized a few converted RF-80Cs and RF-86s.

During the Korean war, 368 F-80s were lost, including 277 in combat missions and 91 non-combat losses[22] Of the 277 F-80s lost in operations (approximately 30% of the existing inventory), 113 were lost to ground fire, 14 to enemy aircraft, 54 to "unknown causes" and 96 were "other losses".[22] F-80s are credited by the USAF with destroying 17 aircraft in air-to-air combat and 24 on the ground.[23] Major Charles J. Loring Jr. was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions while flying an F-80 with the 80th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 8th Fighter-Bomber Wing on 22 November 1952.



1714 production aircraft were delivered to the Air Force prior to any conversions or redesignations, with their original block numbers.

EF-80 prone pilot test aircraft
Prototype powered by a de Havilland-built Halford H.1B turbojet and first flown 8 January 1944, one built.
Production prototype variant powered by a General Electric I-40 turbojet, increased span and length but wing area reduced, two built.
12 pre-production aircraft. One aircraft, 44-83027, lent to Rolls-Royce Limited and used for development of the Nene engine.[24]
One built from YP-80A order (44-83024), lost in midair collision with B-25 Mitchell chase plane on 6 December 1944; USAAF photo reconnaissance prototype.
344 block 1-LO aircraft; 180 block 5-LO aircraft. Block 5 and all subsequent Shooting Stars were natural metal finish. Fitted with 225 US gal (187 imp gal; 850 L) tiptanks.[25]
USAF designation of P-80A.
Modified to test "Prone Pilot" cockpit positions.[N 4]
F-14A/FP-80A reconnaissance aircraft
Unknown number of photo-reconnaissance conversions from P-80A, all redesignated FP-80A.
Modified P-80A 44–85201 with hinged nose for camera equipment.
F-80A test aircraft (s/n 44-85044) with twin 0.5 in (12.7 mm) machine guns in oblique mount, similar to World War II German Schräge Musik, to study the ability to attack Soviet bombers from below
F-80 with Schräge Musik configuration at full elevation
152 block 15-LO; operational photo reconnaissance aircraft.
USAF designation of FP-80A, 66 operational F-80A's modified to RF-80A standard.
Modified P-80A 44–85042 with experimental nose contour.
Reconfigured P-80A, improved J-33 engine, one built as prototype for P-80B
209 block 1-LO; 31 block 5-LO; first model fitted with an ejection seat (retrofitted into -As); delivered between March 1947 and March 1948[26]
USAF designation of P-80B.
Modification of XP-80B to racer.
162 block 1-LO; 75 block 5-LO; 561 block 10-LO
USAF designation of P-80C; 128 F-80A modified to F-80C-11-LO with J-33-A-35 engine and ejection seat installed; fitted with 260 US gal (220 imp gal; 980 L) tiptanks; major P-80 production version.[25]
70 modified F-80A and F-80C, and six modified RF-80A, to RF-80C and RF-80C-11, respectively; upgraded photo recon plane.
Designation given to number of F-80As converted into drone directors.
Project Bad Boy F-80 conversions by Sperry Gyroscope to target drones. Q-8 was initially proposed as designation for the QF-80.
First designation for TF-80C trainer prototype.
Prototype for T-33 (48-0356).
U.S. Navy variant of F-80C; 49 block 1-LO and one block 5-LO aircraft transferred to USN in 1949; 16 initially went to U.S. Marine Corps.


Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star

Lockheed also produced a two-seat trainer variant with a longer fuselage, the T-33, which remained in production until 1959 and was produced under license in Japan and Canada. The trainer was used by more than 20 countries. A total of 6,557 T-33s were built and some are still flying.

Lockheed F-94 Starfire

Two TF-80Cs were modified as prototypes for the F-94 Starfire, an all-weather fighter produced in three variants.

Former operators[edit]

A Peruvian F-80C preserved in a Lima park
33 F-80Cs delivered starting in 1958, withdrawn from service in 1973.[27]
around 30 F-80Cs delivered from 1958 on, last ones retired from service in 1974.[28]
16 F-80Cs delivered starting in 1958, retired by 1966.[29]
16 F-80Cs delivered between 1957 and 1960, six returned to the United States in 1965.[30]
16 F-80Cs delivered starting in 1958, used by the 13th Fighter-Bomber Group until the type was phased out in 1973.[31]
 United States
at least 18 F-80Cs delivered in 1958, withdrawn from use in 1972.[32]

Aircraft on display[edit]




United States[edit]

Lockheed XP-80 "Lulu-Belle" at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, D.C.
  • 44-83020 (Lulu-Belle) – National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.. First flown on 8 January 1944, it was restored right after the 1976 opening of the National Air and Space Museum and is still in their collection.[35]
P-80A on display at the Air Zoo
  • 44-85200 – National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio. This aircraft was specially modified for racing by equipping it with a smaller canopy, a shorter wing, and redesigned air intakes. On 19 June 1947, it was flown by Colonel Albert Boyd to a new world speed record of 623.73 mph (1,004.2 km/h), equaling Heini Dittmar's 623 mph (1,004 km/h) unofficial record velocity in one of the Me 163A liquid-fueled rocket fighter prototypes, set on 2 October 1941 after being towed to the height for the attempt by a Bf 110. The P-80R aircraft was shipped to the Museum from Griffiss Air Force Base in New York in October 1954.[17][59] The next American jet speed record was set two months later, on 20 August by Commander Turner Caldwell, USN, reaching 640.744 miles per hour (1,031.178 km/h) while flying the turbojet-powered Douglas Skystreak D-558-1 No. 1.



Specifications (P-80C/F-80C)[edit]

3-view silhouette drawing of the Lockheed F-80C Shooting Star
3-view silhouette drawing of the Lockheed F-80C Shooting Star

Data from Quest for Performance,[61] Lockheed Aircraft since 1913[62]

General characteristics

5,400 lbf (24 kN) with water injection[64]


  • Maximum speed: 594 mph (956 km/h, 516 kn) at sea level
  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.76
  • Cruise speed: 439 mph (707 km/h, 381 kn)
  • Range: 825 mi (1,328 km, 717 nmi)
  • Ferry range: 1,380 mi (2,220 km, 1,200 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 46,800 ft (14,300 m)
  • Rate of climb: 6,870 ft/min (34.9 m/s)
  • Time to altitude: 20,000 ft (6,100 m) in 5 minutes 30 seconds
  • Lift-to-drag: 17.7
  • Wing loading: 51.3 lb/sq ft (250 kg/m2)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.364
0.435 with water injection.


  • Guns: 6 × 0.50 in (12.7mm) M3 Browning machine guns (300 rpg)
  • Rockets: 8 × 127 mm (5.00 in) HVAR unguided rockets
  • Bombs: 2 × 1,000 lb (450 kg) bombs

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists



  1. ^ The Vampire's first flight was delayed until 20 September 1943 as a result
  2. ^ Royal Air Force jets had made the first crossing of the Atlantic in the reverse direction two weeks earlier.
  3. ^ Aviation historian Norman Polmar states three, but Joseph Baugher lists serial and bureau numbers for four: 44-85000 and −85005 became 29667 and 29668 with 44-85235 and 45-8557 becoming 29689 and 29690.
  4. ^ See also Gloster Meteor F8 "Prone Pilot" for background on prone pilot experiments.


  1. ^ Green and Swanborough 2001, p. 345.
  2. ^ Norton, Bill (2008). U.S. Experimental & Prototype Aircraft Projects: Fighters 1939-1945. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press. ISBN 978-1-58007-109-3.
  3. ^ Jay Miller. "Lockheed Martin's Skunk Works" (PDF). p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2018.
  4. ^ "A Bell That Didn't Ring".
  5. ^ Jay Miller. "Lockheed Martin's Skunk Works" (PDF). p. 15.
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  7. ^ a b Gunston 1976, p. 131.
  8. ^ Gunston 1989, p. 59.
  9. ^ Heppenheimer, T.A. "The Jet Plane is Born." American Heritage magazine, Fall 1993. Volume 9, Issue 2. Retrieved: 1 August 2011.
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  11. ^ Col. Robert E. Thacker Interview Part 2 "Col. Robert E. Thacker Interview Part 2"
  12. ^ Ethell and Price 1994, p. 180.
  13. ^ "Lockheed F-80 "Shooting Star"". www.456fis.org. 4 October 2011. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  14. ^ Dorr, Robert F."Project Extraversion: P-80 Shooting Stars in World War II." Archived 9 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Defense Media Network. Retrieved: 5 August 2013.
  15. ^ Bilstein 2001, p. 179.
  16. ^ Long Beach Press Telegram 27 January 1946
  17. ^ a b "P-80 Shooting Star/44-85200." Archived 12 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the USAF. Retrieved: 9 October 2012.
  18. ^ Francillon 1982, pp. 241–242
  19. ^ Francillon 1982, p. 249
  20. ^ a b Polmar 2001, pp. 12–14.
  21. ^ a b Knez, Saso, Diego Fernando Zampini and Joe L. Brenan. "Korean War Database." Archived 4 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine AirCombat Information Group, (ACIG), 28 October 2003. Retrieved: 6 July 2008.
  22. ^ a b "USAF Losses in Korea".
  23. ^ "USAF Credits for the Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, Korean War." Air Force Historical Study 81, p. 46. Retrieved: 1 August 2011.
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  29. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 143.
  30. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 167.
  31. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 239.
  32. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 263.
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